文章摘要
周启星,滕 涌,展思辉,佟 玲.土壤环境基准/标准研究需要解决的基础性问题[J].农业环境科学学报,2014,33(1):1-14.
土壤环境基准/标准研究需要解决的基础性问题
Fundamental Problems to be Solved in Research on Soil-environmental Criteria/standards
  
DOI:10.11654/jaes.2014.01.001
中文关键词: 土壤  土壤环境基准  修复基准  方法学  环境标准  生态安全
英文关键词: soil  soil-environmental criteria  remediation criteria  methodological problem  environmental standard  ecological safety
基金项目:
作者单位
周启星 南开大学环境科学与工程学院 环境污染过程与基准教育部重点实验室 天津 300071 
滕 涌 南开大学环境科学与工程学院 环境污染过程与基准教育部重点实验室 天津 300071 
展思辉 南开大学环境科学与工程学院 环境污染过程与基准教育部重点实验室 天津 300071 
佟 玲 南开大学环境科学与工程学院 环境污染过程与基准教育部重点实验室 天津 300071 
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中文摘要:
      土壤环境基准/标准研究是一个复杂的系统工程,涉及到多方面的基础性问题。了解和解决其所涉及的这些基础性问题,是土壤环境基准/标准是否科学准确并在国家层面上能否全面应用的前提。本文从土壤环境基准/标准研究相关的概念及其内涵、基础方法标准化、生物受体的选择和变量归一化4大方面阐述了土壤环境基准/标准研究需要解决的基础性问题,从而为全面系统地开展此项研究工作提供思想、理论、方法和技术等依据。具体来说,包括“环境质量”、“土壤环境质量”、“土壤质量”、“土壤污染”、“污染土壤”、“土壤环境质量基准”、“污染土壤修复基准”等诸多相关概念,采样、前处理、分析步骤和测试方法等的统一与标准化,敏感种与优势种等生物受体的正确选择,以及涉及到总量与有效态或提取态、复合污染与交互作用的情况、土壤本身的一些影响因素(土壤类型、有机质、粘粒、pH、Eh和CEC等)、土壤外部的一些影响因素(地理区域、温度、水分或湿度、施肥或农业措施等)诸多变量的基础数据的归一化处理。最后,结合这些基础性问题,对土壤环境基准/标准的研究进行了展望。
英文摘要:
      Research on soil-environmental criteria/standards is a complex systems engineering, involving in many fundamental problems. To understand and solve these fundamental problems is the requisite and premise whether soil-environmental criteria/standards are scientific and accurate or not, and can be fully applied at the national level. In this review, these fundamental problems including relevant basic concepts of soil-environmental criteria/standards and their connotations, standardization of basic analytical and measuring methods, correct selection of biological receptors, and normalization of various data and variables were firstly expounded, thus providing with the thought, theory, method and technology basis for comprehensive and systematical study on soil-environmental criteria/standards. Concretely speaking, the relevant concepts including "environmental quality", "soil-environmental quality", "soil quality", "soil pollution", "contaminated soil", "soil-environmental quality standard", and "remediation standards for contaminated soils", the unity and standardization of sample-collecting, pretreatment, analytical procedures and experimental methods, the correct selection of sensitive and dominant species as biological receptors, as well as the normalization of basic data and many variables including total amount and bioavailable or extracted forms of toxic pollutants, and their combined pollution and interaction, some influences of soil intrinsic factors (soil types, organic matter, clay, pH, Eh and CEC, etc), and some external factors affecting soil environment (geographical area, temperature, water or moisture, fertilizer application or agricultural measures, etc), are the most challenging fundamental problems of soil-environmental criteria/standards researches. Finally, combined with these fundamental problems, the future study on soil environmental criteria/standards are prospected.
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