文章摘要
朱建春,张增强,樊志民,李荣华.中国畜禽粪便的能源潜力与氮磷耕地负荷及总量控制[J].农业环境科学学报,2014,33(3):435-445.
中国畜禽粪便的能源潜力与氮磷耕地负荷及总量控制
Biogas Potential, Cropland Load and Total Amount Control of Animal Manure in China
  
DOI:10.11654/jaes.2014.03.005
中文关键词: 畜禽粪便  产沼气潜力  氮磷耕地负荷  总量控制
英文关键词: animal manure  biogas utilization potential  nitrogen and phosphorous cropland load  total amount control
基金项目:
作者单位
朱建春 西北农林科技大学农村社会研究中心 陕西 杨凌 712100西北农林科技大学人文学院 陕西 杨凌 712100 
张增强 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院 陕西 杨凌 712100 
樊志民 西北农林科技大学人文学院 陕西 杨凌 712100 
李荣华 农业部西北植物营养与农业环境重点实验室 陕西 杨凌 712100 
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中文摘要:
      通过估算 1978—2011年间中国畜禽养殖业畜禽粪便产生量及其氮、磷和COD含量的变化,分析了中国畜禽粪便的来源结构、氮磷耕地负荷及产沼气潜力。结果表明:中国畜禽粪便主要来源于牛、猪、羊和家禽。1978—2011年,中国畜禽粪便的产生量和COD含量分别增加了 1.35倍和 0.91倍,至 2011年分别达 25.45 亿t和 2.33 亿t。2011年中国畜禽粪便产沼气潜力为757.04 亿m3,折合0.54 亿t标准煤,其中河南、四川、河北、山东和内蒙古5个地区的产沼气潜力相对较高。中国畜禽粪便氮、磷产生量均呈上升趋势,从1978年到2011年分别增加了1.39倍和1.66倍,至2011年分别达到 1 419.76 万t和247.98 万t。2011年,中国大部分地区或省份畜禽实际养殖量已经超过50%环境容量,氮、磷污染风险较高的地区主要分布于山东、北京、湖南、湖北、广东、广西、辽宁、天津、河北、福建、河南和海南等东部沿海经济发达省份,这些地区应严格控制畜禽养殖数量,而内蒙古、江西、四川、山西、西藏、陕西、青海、宁夏、甘肃和新疆等地区还有适当扩大养殖规模的空间。
英文摘要:
      Aminal manure may contaminate the environment, but can still contribute to soil fertility and tilth and biogas production. This paper estimated discharge coefficient, N, P and COD loads, and biogas generation capacity of the manures from animal husbandry industry in China from 1978 to 2011, using the data collected from the Statistical Yearbook of China and China Animal Husbandry Yearbook. The results showed that the production amount of animal manure was mainly from cattle, pig, sheep and poultry breeding. The animal manure production and derived COD had increased by 1.35 and 0.91 times from 1978 to 2011 , reaching 2.545 billion tons and 0.233 billion tons in 2011, respectively. Biogas production in 2011 was 75.704 billion m3, amounting to 54 million tons of standard coal. The biogas generation in Henan, Sichuan, Hebei, Shandong and Inner Mongolia was much higher than that in other provinces. Amounts of nitrogen and phosphorous from animal manure were 14.20 million and 2.48 million tons in 2011, increasing by 1.39 and 1.66 times from 1978 to 2011 respectively. The number of animals from poultry breeding industry in most regions or provinces had surpassed 50% of the holding capacity of the environment. Areas with higher contamination risks from the release of nitrogen and phosphorous were mainly in economically developed coastal regions such as Shandong, Beijing, Hunan, Hubei, Guangdong, Guangxi, Liaoning, Tianjin, Hebei, Fujian, Henan and Hainan. The result suggests that the breeding of livestock and poultry in these areas should be controlled, but in other areas such as Inner Mongolia,Jiangxi, Sichuan, Shanxi, Tibet, Shaanxi, Qinghai, Ningxia, Gansu and Xinjiang,the breeding scale still has room to develop. This study provided valuable information for how to improve the resource utilization of livestock manures and reduce the agricultural non-point source pollution in China.
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