文章摘要
基于物质量的滨海湿地生态补偿理论研究及政策建议
Study on the theory and policy suggestions of ecological offsetting based on physical quantity for coastal wetland
投稿时间:2019-03-07  修订日期:2019-04-12
DOI:
中文关键词: 滨海湿地  生态补偿  生态修复
英文关键词: Coastal wetland  ecological offsetting  ecological restoration
基金项目:国家自然科学基金重点项目;国家重点基础研究发展计划项目;国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项项目
作者单位E-mail
于淑玲 北京师范大学 yushulingiam@hotmail.com 
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中文摘要:
      针对基于物质量的滨海湿地生态补偿机制的研究,对于推动滨海湿地生态补偿实践、推进资源的可持续利用和生物多样性保护具有重要意义。本研究详细论述滨海湿地物质量补偿的理论体系,包括物质量补偿的定义、补偿原则及特点、主要补偿方式和补偿主体和客体等方面;物质量补偿是指采取适当的保护、恢复或重建措施对项目开发产生的重大残余影响的平衡补偿机制,其目标是实现滨海湿地物种组成、生态结构、生态系统功能以及相关的人类使用和文化价值等方面的无净损失;补偿原则为无净损失原则、可行性和有效性原则、利益相关者参与原则和公平性原则;具有额外性、长期性及存在不可补偿性阈值的特点;补偿方式主要有同类补偿和异类补偿、修复补偿和避免损失补偿、直接补偿和间接补偿、原位补偿和异位补偿几种分类;并阐明了生态补偿与生态修复之间的区别,对补偿参考系和补偿率等概念做了详细阐述。提出适用于我国的中国特色的生态补偿运行模式,将受损滨海湿地列入主要补偿客体。并为我国滨海湿地生态补偿提出对策建议,对滨海湿地生态修复及生态补偿理论的发展具有重要意义。
英文摘要:
      The study on the offsetting mechanism of coastal wetland based on physical quantity is of great significance for promoting the ecological offsetting practice of coastal wetland, promoting the sustainable utilization of resources and biodiversity conservation. This study discusses in detail the theoretical framework and system of ecological offsetting based on physical quantity, including the definition, principle and characteristics, main offsetting methods and offsetting subjects and objects; Ecological offsetting based on physical quantity refers to the restoration of degraded habitat elsewhere (restoration offsets), or the protection of areas where there is imminent or projected loss of biodiversity (avoid-loss offsets), with the goal of achieving no net loss in terms of species composition, ecological structure, ecosystem function and related human use and cultural values of coastal wetland. The principle of offsetting is to make sure no net loss, feasibility and validity, stakeholder participation and fairness. It has the characteristics of additionality, long-term and uncompensable thresholds. Offsetting methods mainly include in-kind and out-of-kind offsets, restoration offsets and avoid-loss offsets, direct and indirect offsets, on-site and off-site offsets; and clarify the difference between ecological offsetting and ecological restoration. The concepts such as offset baseline and offset ratio were described in detail. An ecological offsetting mode with Chinese characteristics is proposed, and the damaged coastal wetland is included as the main offset object. Then put forward countermeasures and suggestions for the ecological offsetting of coastal wetlands in China, which is of great significance for the development of ecological restoration and ecological offsetting theory of coastal wetlands.
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