文章摘要
刘寿涛,何钟响,许蒙,李丹阳,罗海艳,刘孝利,铁柏清.植物塘+人工湿地系统对灌溉水净化及稻米镉的阻控效果[J].农业环境科学学报,2019,38(5):1060-1068.
植物塘+人工湿地系统对灌溉水净化及稻米镉的阻控效果
Effects of plant pond and constructed wetland system on irrigation water purification and rice cadmium control
投稿时间:2018-09-25  
DOI:10.11654/jaes.2018-1216
中文关键词: 植物塘  农田灌溉水    湿地植物  稻米  大气干湿沉降
英文关键词: plant pond  farmland irrigation water  cadmium  wetland plant  rice  atmospheric dry and wet deposition
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0801505);湖南省重点研发计划项目(2015NK3015);农业部、财政部专项(20160418)
作者单位E-mail
刘寿涛 湖南农业大学资源环境学院, 长沙 410128
湖南省灌溉水源水质污染净化工程技术研究中心, 长沙 410128
农业部南方产地污染防控重点实验室, 长沙 410128 
 
何钟响 湖南农业大学资源环境学院, 长沙 410128
湖南省灌溉水源水质污染净化工程技术研究中心, 长沙 410128
农业部南方产地污染防控重点实验室, 长沙 410128 
 
许蒙 湖南农业大学资源环境学院, 长沙 410128
湖南省灌溉水源水质污染净化工程技术研究中心, 长沙 410128
农业部南方产地污染防控重点实验室, 长沙 410128 
 
李丹阳 湖南农业大学资源环境学院, 长沙 410128
湖南省灌溉水源水质污染净化工程技术研究中心, 长沙 410128
农业部南方产地污染防控重点实验室, 长沙 410128 
 
罗海艳 湖南农业大学资源环境学院, 长沙 410128
湖南省灌溉水源水质污染净化工程技术研究中心, 长沙 410128
农业部南方产地污染防控重点实验室, 长沙 410128 
 
刘孝利 湖南农业大学资源环境学院, 长沙 410128
湖南省灌溉水源水质污染净化工程技术研究中心, 长沙 410128
农业部南方产地污染防控重点实验室, 长沙 410128 
 
铁柏清 湖南农业大学资源环境学院, 长沙 410128
湖南省灌溉水源水质污染净化工程技术研究中心, 长沙 410128
农业部南方产地污染防控重点实验室, 长沙 410128 
tiebq@qq.com 
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中文摘要:
      为了降低灌溉水中Cd向农田中输入,减轻农田重金属Cd污染,降低稻米中Cd含量。本试验选取梭鱼草、狐尾藻、轮叶黑藻为材料,构建3级植物塘+人工湿地系统,研究其对湖南典型矿区Cd超标灌溉水(全量Cd浓度均值≈6.65 μg·L-1)净化效果及稻米Cd阻控效果,并分析灌溉水进出水浓度与干湿沉降通量对系统净化效果的影响及净化系统中湿地植物的吸附能力。结果表明:梭鱼草、狐尾藻、轮叶黑藻3种水生植物对灌溉水中Cd具有较好的去除能力,经系统净化后灌溉水中全量和可溶态Cd平均去除率分别高达70%和91%,可有效降低湿地系统中重金属Cd浓度并阻止灌溉水中Cd向稻田迁移。湿地进水Cd浓度易随降雨产生波动,但湿地系统对Cd的去除效果不受影响。降雨量与Cd湿沉降通量呈线性正相关,与Cd干沉降通量呈线性负相关。监测期间(2017年4月16日-2017年9月17日)该3级净化系统Cd输入总量为428.46 g,其中干沉降沉降量为20.52 g,湿沉降沉降量为57.60 g,系统有效截留Cd占输入总量的87.94%,干湿沉降作为外源Cd输入源之一,对净化系统的运行效果影响不显著。在湿地正常运行情况下,净化后灌溉区水稻根部、茎鞘、叶片、谷壳和糙米中的Cd含量与未净化灌溉区水稻相比分别下降了5.96、3.83、2.42、0.40 mg·kg-1和0.12 mg·kg-1。研究结果可为典型矿区Cd污染灌溉水净化、降低农田重金属输入量与粮食安全生产提供科学参考和数据支持。
英文摘要:
      To reduce the input of cadmium (Cd) into farmland with irrigation water and reduce Cd pollution in farmland and rice content, a field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of a three-level constructed wetland planted with Pontederia cordata, Myriophyllum verticillatum, and Hydrilla verticillata on Cd uptake ability when Cd exceeded standard irrigation water in amining area (the average Cd concentration was ≈6.65 μg·L-1). The effects of dry and wet deposition flux on system purification were also analyzed. The results showed that the three aquatic plants had good removal ability of Cd, and total and soluble Cd concentrations in the irrigation water decreased significantly after wetland treatment. The average removal rate of total Cd in the system was 70% and soluble Cd was 91%; therefore, there was less Cd polluted water flowing into the farmland. The Cd concentration in the wetland inflow fluctuated with rainfall; however, the removal ability of Cd in the wetland system was not affected. Rainfall was linearly negatively correlated with dry sedimentation and linearly positively correlated with wet sedimentation Cd content. During the observation period, the total input of Cd in the plant pond system was 428.46 g, whereas the dry and wet deposition fluxes were 20.52 g and 57.60 g, respectively, and the Cd retained by the wetland system accounted for 87.9% of the total input. Dry and wet deposition are sources of Cd input, and they have no significant effects on the operation of the wetland. Under normal wetland operation, compared with the rice in the untreated irrigated area, the Cd content in rice roots, stem sheaths, leaves, rice husks, and brown rice in the irrigated area decreased by 5.96, 3.83, 2.42, 0.40 mg·kg-1, and 0.12 mg·kg-1, respectively. The research results provide scientific reference and data support for Cd pollution irrigation water purification, reduction of farmland heavy metal input, and food safety production in typical mining areas.
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