文章摘要
孙源辰,何文清,靳拓,严昌荣,赵梓君,刘勤.西北六省区农田地膜残留特征与关键影响因素[J].农业环境科学学报,2024,43(6):1260-1270.
西北六省区农田地膜残留特征与关键影响因素
Characteristics and key influencing factors of farmland plastic film residual in six provinces of northwest China
投稿时间:2024-01-14  
DOI:10.11654/jaes.2024-0055
中文关键词: 农田地膜残留  影响因素  贡献比例  西北六省区
英文关键词: plastic film residual of farmland  influence factor  contribution ratio  six provinces of northwest China
基金项目:国家重点研发计划课题(2023YFD1701902);内蒙古自治区科技计划课题(2023YFHH0099)
作者单位E-mail
孙源辰 中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所, 北京 100081
农业农村部农膜污染防控重点实验室, 北京 100081 
 
何文清 中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所, 北京 100081
农业农村部农膜污染防控重点实验室, 北京 100081 
 
靳拓 农业农村部农业生态与资源保护总站, 北京 100125  
严昌荣 中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所, 北京 100081
农业农村部农膜污染防控重点实验室, 北京 100081 
 
赵梓君 中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所, 北京 100081
农业农村部农膜污染防控重点实验室, 北京 100081 
 
刘勤 中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所, 北京 100081
农业农村部农膜污染防控重点实验室, 北京 100081 
liuqin02@caas.cn 
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中文摘要:
      为了探明西北六省区农田地膜残留特征与关键影响因素,本研究于2020—2022年在新疆维吾尔自治区、内蒙古自治区、青海省、宁夏回族自治区、陕西省、甘肃省布设共计 160个农田地膜残留监测点,利用典型样点采集的方法进行农田地膜残留监测,同时对农田农户背景资料进行问卷调查。结果表明:2020—2022年西北六省区160个农田地膜残留监测点的农田地膜残留量介于0.46~369.29 kg·hm-2之间,平均残膜量70.30 kg·hm-2,处于接近国家标准限值75 kg·hm-2的水平。不同省份之间残膜量差异显著(P<0.05),残膜污染较严重的农田主要分布在新疆和内蒙古,陕西、青海、甘肃和宁夏地区残膜污染较轻。农田地膜残留量与覆膜年限呈显著正相关、与地膜厚度呈负相关关系,在不同作物类型及覆膜比例条件下差异显著,受不同回收方式、不同种植户类型及其距村庄的距离、不同土壤类型影响显著。残膜量主要影响因素及其贡献度分别为回收方式30.8%、作物类型15.2%、覆膜比例 13.8%、覆膜年限 10.8%;种植户类型、地块距村庄距离、土壤类型、地膜标识厚度对农田地膜残留量的贡献度较小,均不足10%。研究表明,西北六省区存在较大的地膜污染隐患,建议因地制宜地加强防治力度、改良防治方案,改进和推广地膜污染防治技术,在充分考虑农民利益的基础上完善地膜防治政策。
英文摘要:
      In order to explore the characteristics and influence factors of farmland plastic film residual in six provinces of northwest China, a total of 160 monitoring sites were established in Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Qinghai, Ningxia, Shaanxi, and Gansu from 2020 to 2022. Typical sample collection methods were used to carry out mulch film residue monitoring. As well, background information was collected from farmers for the purpose of carrying out a questionnaire survey. The results showed that the amount of plastic film residue ranged from 0.46 kg · hm-2 to 369.29 kg · hm-2 among the 160 monitoring sites, with an average of 70.30 kg · hm-2, which was close to the national standard limit of 75 kg·hm-2. The differences among the different provinces in terms of the amount of residual plastic film were significant (P<0.05). The monitoring points with a high degree of pollution were mainly located in Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia, whereas residual film pollution was found to be relatively light in Shaanxi, Qinghai, Gansu and Ningxia. The amount of residual soil film was observed to be positively correlated with the film mulching years, with thicker film resulting in smaller residue amounts. Significant differences were detected under different crop types and film coverage ratios, being greatly influenced by diverse factors, including recovery methods, farmer types and their distances from plot to village, and soil texture types. The contribution rates of the main factors affecting the residual film amount were as follows:recovery methods(30.8%), crop types(15.2%), film coverage ratio(13.8%), and film mulching years(10.8%). The contribution rates of farmer types, distances from plot to village, soil texture types, and film thickness to the residual film amount in farmlands were all below 10%. The results show that there is a high risk of plastic film pollution in six provinces of northwest China. It is recommended that prevention and control efforts be strengthened according to local conditions. It is suggested to enhance and promote technologies for preventing and controlling plastic film pollution. More importantly, the local government should refine prevention and control policies for plastic film while fully considering the interests of farmers.
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