文章摘要
张倩,陈倩,江艳军,胡乃娟,樊廷录,孙洪武.废旧地膜回收利用模式探索、现实困境与优化路径——基于陇、鲁实践调查[J].农业环境科学学报,2024,43(6):1294-1302.
废旧地膜回收利用模式探索、现实困境与优化路径——基于陇、鲁实践调查
Methods,challenges,and improvement path for recycling of waste mulch film:survey of Gansu Province and Shandong Province,China
投稿时间:2023-12-05  
DOI:10.11654/jaes.2023-1035
中文关键词: 地膜  回收利用  模式  困境  优化
英文关键词: plastic film  recycling  model  dilemma  improvement
基金项目:江苏省重点研发计划项目(BE2023351);江苏省农业科技自主创新项目(CX(21)1010);国家自然科学基金项目(32201923)
作者单位E-mail
张倩 江苏省农业科学院农业经济与发展研究所, 南京 210014  
陈倩 江苏省农业科学院农业经济与发展研究所, 南京 210014
南京农业大学农学院, 南京 210095 
 
江艳军 江苏省农业科学院农业经济与发展研究所, 南京 210014  
胡乃娟 江苏省农业科学院农业经济与发展研究所, 南京 210014  
樊廷录 甘肃省农业科学院, 兰州 730070  
孙洪武 江苏省农业科学院农业经济与发展研究所, 南京 210014 sunhwjaas@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      为研究我国废旧地膜回收利用模式经验、面临问题与优化路径,本研究选取甘肃、山东两大代表省份开展实地调研,并比较了不同再利用方式的经济和生态效益。结果显示:山东一方面通过花生种植制度创新,成功实现地膜减量,另一方面基于行政层级架构回收网络体系,及创新“秸-膜”协同回收模式,大幅降低废旧地膜捡拾含杂率;甘肃通过全链条多主体协同回收利用模式、企业“多功能”集成一体化回收处理模式等创新,实现县域废旧地膜回收全覆盖。此外,1 t废旧地膜(指废旧地膜与秸秆、根系、泥土等的混合物,经分离清理后含杂率为20%~30%,下同)再生造粒的经济效益为20~120元·t-1,碳排放量为8.68 kg CO2e·t-1,焚烧发电的经济效益为129~194元·t-1,碳排放量为1.83 kg CO2e·t-1。当前,进一步提升回收利用效率面临着地膜使用不科学、机械设备作业场景较单一、资源配置不科学、财政持续支持困难、废旧地膜再利用产业内生“造血”能力弱等一系列障碍。研究表明,源头减量替代与回收体系建设是我国废旧地膜回收的主要路径,焚烧发电和再生造粒是再利用的主要路径,且焚烧发电的经济和减碳效益均优于再生造粒,解决现有问题,需因地制宜地制定覆膜技术规程,强化地膜生产、销售标准化管控,加强回收、捡拾、处置等机械设备创新,全域统筹配置各项资源,调动各级财政与社会资本长效支持,加快生态产品价值转化市场机制建设等。
英文摘要:
      The aim of this study was to investigate waste mulch film recycling in China, with a focus on the innovative initiatives of Gansu Province and Shandong Province. Through this survey, the experience and challenges of these initiatives were documented and the economic and ecological benefits of various recycling methods were compared. In Shandong Province, the total volume of plastic film was reduced through innovative peanut planting systems, and mulch film trash was greatly reduced via an administrative hierarchy recovery network and a "straw+film" synergistic recovery mode. In Gansu Province, mulch film recycling was achieved in rural areas through a fullchain, multi-agent synergistic recycling model and an integrated "multi-function" recovery and treatment model of enterprises. The economic benefit per ton of waste mulch film(a mixture of waste plastic film, straw, roots, soil, etc.)was recorded. After separation and cleaning, the impurity rate after separation and cleaning was found to be approximately 20% to 30% and the economic value of granulitization was 20-120 yuan·t-1, with a CO2 equivalent of 8.68 kg CO2e·t-1. In comparison, the value gained from power generation by incineration was 129-194 yuan · t-1, with a CO2 equivalent of 1.83 kg CO2e · t-1. Challenges to enhancing recycling efficiency include improper mulch film use, high trash content in recovery, low mechanical recovery rates, unscientific resource allocation, limited sustained financial support, and a weak cash flow-generating capacity in the mulch film recycling industry. The primary paths for mulch film recovery in China are substitution-based source reduction and recycling system construction. The main recycling methods are power generation by incineration and granulitization, with incineration offering greater economic and carbon reduction benefits over granulitization. Addressing current challenges involves developing local-specific technical regulations for mulching, strengthening standardized control of mulch film production and sales, innovating machinery and equipment, coordinating regional resource allocation, mobilizing long-term financial and social capital resources, and developing market mechanisms for transforming the value of ecological products.
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