文章摘要
山东省畜禽粪便的环境污染现状及风险评价
Risk assessment of farmland and water contamination with livestock manure in Shandong Province
投稿时间:2020-10-13  
DOI:10.13254/j.jare.2020.0590
中文关键词: 畜禽粪便,耕地负荷,水体污染负荷,预警级别,风险评价
英文关键词: livestock manure, farmland loading, water pollution loading, risk level, risk assessment
基金项目:聊城大学博士基金(318051904)
作者单位
于娜 聊城大学地理与环境学院, 山东 聊城 252000 
王晓茹 聊城大学地理与环境学院, 山东 聊城 252000 
李婷婷 聊城大学地理与环境学院, 山东 聊城 252000 
王倩 聊城大学地理与环境学院, 山东 聊城 252000 
翟胜 聊城大学地理与环境学院, 山东 聊城 252000 
李巧燕 聊城大学地理与环境学院, 山东 聊城 252000 
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中文摘要:
      以耕地和水环境保护为出发点,根据山东省各地市近五年来畜禽养殖量数据,采用排泄系数法估算畜禽粪便的产生量,在此基础上计算了畜禽粪便的耕地负荷和水体等标污染指数等指标,综合评价了各地市畜禽养殖业的发展对土壤和水环境产生的污染压力。研究发现:2014-2018年山东全省畜禽粪便的平均耕地污染风险指数为0.77~0.84,预警级别为Ⅲ级;全省平均水体等标污染指数由9.26逐渐降低为4.46,对应的预警级别由Ⅱ级降为Ⅰ级。表明畜禽污染已对土壤环境产生风险,潍坊市尤为突出;而畜禽污染对水体环境基本无污染风险,但不同地区间存在差异,聊城市的水体污染风险仍相对较高。此外,依据土壤养分平衡理论和山东省耕地面积估算,山东省2018年畜禽的最高承载数量(以猪当量计)为12 873万头。本研究为优化畜禽养殖结构、推动区域畜禽养殖业绿色发展、保护区域生态可持续发展提供了理论参考。
英文摘要:
      According to livestock data for Shandong Province in the last five years, the quantity of livestock manure was estimated utilizing the discharge rate of livestock manure. On this basis, the farmland pollution loading and water equal standard pollution loading of livestock manure were calculated. Moreover, the risk assessment was evaluated on the livestock pollution in farmland and water bodies in the province. The overall averaged risk constant of livestock manure loading on farmland was 0.77~0.84 and the corresponding risk level was Ⅲ in the recent five years, which suggested that livestock manure pollution had caused risks to the soil environment, especially in Weifang City. With regard to water bodies, the averaged equal standard pollution loading decreased from 9.26 to 4.46, and the corresponding risk level decreased from Ⅱ to Ⅰ, indicating approximately no pollution risk to the water environment. However, significant differences were observed for the water contamination with livestock manure in different areas of Shandong, such as Liaocheng, which still had a relatively high pollution risk. In addition, the maximum carrying quantity of livestock was estimated based on the soil nutrient balance theory and the cultivated land area of Shandong Province, which was 128.73 million head(in terms of pig equivalent) in 2018. The purpose of this study was to provide a theoretical reference for optimizing the structure of livestock, promoting the green development of regional farming industries, and protecting the sustainable development of the regional ecology.
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