文章摘要
杨润,孙钦平,赵海燕,邹国元,刘本生,李恋卿.沼液在稻田的精确施用及其环境效应研究[J].农业环境科学学报,2017,36(8):1566-1572.
沼液在稻田的精确施用及其环境效应研究
Precision application of biogas slurry and its environmental effects in paddy fields
投稿时间:2016-12-16  
DOI:10.11654/jaes.2016-1617
中文关键词: 沼液  水稻  氮素利用率  氨挥发
英文关键词: biogas slurry  rice  nitrogen use efficiency  ammonia volatilization
基金项目:农业部公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201303089-2)
作者单位E-mail
杨润 南京农业大学农业资源与生态环境研究所, 南京 210095  
孙钦平 北京市农林科学院植物营养与资源研究所, 北京 100097 sunqp@126.com 
赵海燕 南京农业大学资源与环境科学学院, 南京 210095  
邹国元 北京市农林科学院植物营养与资源研究所, 北京 100097  
刘本生 北京市农林科学院植物营养与资源研究所, 北京 100097  
李恋卿 南京农业大学农业资源与生态环境研究所, 南京 210095 lqli@niau.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      为探究沼液在稻田中的适宜用量,通过田间试验,研究不同氮素水平的沼液(0、90、157.5、225、292.5、562.5 kg·hm-2)对水稻产量、氮素利用率、田面水无机氮动态变化、土壤残留无机氮以及稻田氨挥发的影响。结果表明,水稻籽粒产量随沼液氮素施用量的变化符合线性加平台模型,沼液在水稻种植中的最佳氮素施用量为213.9 kg·hm-2;施用沼液显著增加了田面水铵态氮浓度,施用沼液3 d后,田面水铵态氮浓度迅速降低,而田面水硝态氮初始浓度无明显变化;稻田氨挥发总量随沼液氮素施用量的增加而显著增加,且主要集中在沼液施用后的一周内,氨挥发所引起的氮素损失占沼液氮素量的14.52%~17.64%;等氮量施用的沼液和化肥相比,水稻产量、氮素利用率、氮素农学生产率和土壤残留无机氮均无显著差异,而单位稻谷产量的氨挥发量显著降低22.6%。由此可见,稻田合理施用沼液具有较好的经济效益和环境效益。
英文摘要:
      A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of biogas slurry application on rice yield, nitrogen(N) use efficiency, surface water mineral nitrogen(Nmin) dynamics, soil Nmin, and ammonia volatilization. The results showed that rice yield had a positive linear relationship with the applied biogas slurry sourced N rate when it was less than 213.9 kg·hm-2, and rice yield could be increased by 9.05 kg per 1 kg biogas slurry sourced N applied. However, rice yield was not increased further when the biogas slurry sourced N input was higher than 213.9 kg·hm-2. Given this, it was indicated that 213.9 kg·hm-2 may be the reasonable application rate for this paddy field. The soil mineral N residue increased linearly with the increase of N application rate after harvest. After the slurry application, the NH4+-N concentration in the surface water was reduced rapidly, and then gradually become stable, whereas slurry application had no significant effect on NO3--N concentration in the surface water. Ammonia volatilization mainly happened in the first week after fertilizer application, and the N loss caused by ammonia volatilization accounted for 14.52%~17.64% of the biogas slurry sourced N application rate. Compared to chemical fertilizer application, the rice grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency, and soil Nmin were similar under biogas slurry application with the same amount of N, whereas the ammonia volatilization intensity(kg NH3 per kg rice yield) was significantly reduced by 22.6%. According to the results of this study, the rational use of biogas slurry in paddy fields could have good economic and environmental benefits.
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