文章摘要
.洱海北部地区不同氮、磷处理对稻田田面水氮磷动态变化的影响[J].农业环境科学学报,2013,32(4):.
洱海北部地区不同氮、磷处理对稻田田面水氮磷动态变化的影响
Dynamic Changes of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Concentrations in Surface Waters of Paddy Soils in the Northern Area of Erhai Lake
  
DOI:10.11654/jaes.2013.04.026
中文关键词: 水稻土  田面水  氮,磷  动态变化
英文关键词: paddy  surface water  nitrogen  phosphorus  dynamic change
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中文摘要:
      水稻种植期的田面水氮、磷浓度是稻田N、P径流流失、N素的氨挥发等各种损失途径的关键控制因子。通过田间定点实验监测与分析研究了洱海北部地区水稻土田面水氮磷浓度的动态变化特征。结果表明:总氮(TN)以及可溶性总氮(DTN)在施基肥后是先升后降的趋势,1~3 d内达到峰值,然后迅速下降,9 d后含量差异趋同;在施入孕穗肥后,TN及DTN浓度立即到达峰值后迅速下降,在9 d后含量很少,并趋于稳定;DTN浓度变化趋势可用二次曲线模型Y=AX2+BX+C来描述;铵态氮(NH+4-N)浓度变化在不同施肥时期有明显区别,施基肥后田面水NH+4-N浓度在3~5 d内到顶点,而在追肥期1~2 d内就到顶峰;田面水总磷(TP)和可溶性总磷(DTP)浓度施入基肥后呈指数型下降,在施肥12 d后差异趋同,其变化都可用指数模型(Y=C0×ekt,k<0)来描述。因此,施肥后 9 d内是控制N损失的关键时期,控制P损失的关键时期则是在施肥后的两周内;水稻施肥应避开降雨时期,以减少施肥后的径流流失。
英文摘要:
      A field experiment was conducted to study dynamic changes in ammonium(NH+4-N), nitrate(NO-3-N) concentrations, dissolved total N(DTN), total N(TN), total P(TP) and dissolved total P(DTP) concentrations in the surface waters of paddy fields applied with different treatments of N and P fertilizers in the northern region of Erhai Lake. Results showed that TN and DTN peaked after 1~3 days, and decreased rapidly and then leveled off after 9 days of the basal fertilizer applied, while TN and DTN reached their respective peak values in concentrations quickly during milk stage. Dynamic changes of DTN fitted a quadratic equation(Y=AX2+BX+C). NH+4-N peaked 3~5 days after the basal fertilizer applied, but NH+4-N peaked 1~2 days after the milk fertilizer applied. TP and DTP concentrations were exponentially declined after basal fertilizer application. However, there were no differences in these indexes 12 days later, this change could be described with an exponential equation(Y=C0×ekt, k<0). Therefore, 9 days after fertilizing were the key period for controlling the N loss from the paddy fields, but two weeks for controlling the P loss. Fertilizing season should avoid rainfall period to reduce nutrient losses through runoff.
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