文章摘要
王 美,李书田,马义兵,黄绍敏,王伯仁,朱 平.长期不同施肥措施对土壤和作物重金属累积的影响[J].农业环境科学学报,2014,33(1):63-74.
长期不同施肥措施对土壤和作物重金属累积的影响
Effect of Long-term Fertilization on Heavy Metal Accumulation in Soils and Crops
  
DOI:10.11654/jaes.2014.01.008
中文关键词: 长期施肥  重金属  土壤  玉米  小麦
英文关键词: long-term fertilization  heavy metals  soil  maize  wheat
基金项目:
作者单位
王 美 中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所 北京 100081 
李书田 中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所 北京 100081 
马义兵 中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所 北京 100081 
黄绍敏 河南省农业科学院植物营养与资源环境研究所 郑州 450002 
王伯仁 中国农业科学院衡阳红壤实验站 湖南 祁阳 426182 
朱 平 吉林省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所 吉林 公主岭 136100 
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中文摘要:
      分析测定黑土、潮土和红壤在20多年不同施肥措施(不施肥、单施化肥、化肥与有机肥配施)下土壤和作物中Cu、Zn、Cd的含量,结果表明:长期单施化肥对黑土、潮土、红壤Cu、Zn、Cd含量没有显著影响;在黑土和红壤上,有机肥与化肥配施与对照不施肥相比显著提高Cu、Zn和Cd含量;红壤上有机肥和化肥配施(NPKM和1.5NPKM)处理小麦籽粒和秸秆Cu、Zn、Cd含量显著高于单施化肥处理(NPK),而且化肥配施有机肥(NPKM)与单施化肥相比(NPK)显著提高玉米籽粒和秸秆Zn、Cd含量;在潮土上,NK处理显著提高小麦籽粒和秸秆中Zn含量;黑土上各处理玉米籽粒中Cd含量无显著差异,而化肥配施有机肥比单施化肥显著提高玉米籽粒Zn含量。根据测定数据估算,在目前施肥措施和作物种植体系下,黑土对Cu、Zn、Cd的最高承载年限分别为67年、118年、9年,潮土分别为1042年、2043年、631年,红壤分别为10年、46年、0.5年。假设土地承载年限为45年且有机肥施用量低于10 t·hm-2,黑土和潮土可接受有机肥中Cd的最高限量低于我国有机肥中的平均含量,说明实际生产中施用有机肥造成土壤Cd污染的风险较大。因此,有必要尽快制定有机肥中重金属的安全限量标准,以确保土壤和农产品安全。
英文摘要:
      Contents of Cu, Zn and Cd in soil and plant samples collected from over 20 year′s fertilization experiments in black soil, fluvo-aquic soil and red soil were analyzed. Results indicated that Cu, Zn and Cd contents in three soils were not affected by applying chemical fertilizers alone, but significantly increased by chemical fertilizers combined with manure(NPKM), compared with the control without fertilizer application in black and red soil. In red soil the concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cd in grain and straw of wheat were significantly increased in the treatments of NPKM and 1.5NPKM compared with the NPK treatment, and Zn and Cd in maize grain and straw were also higher in the treatment of NPKM than NPK. In fluvo-aquic soil the NK treatment significantly increased the contents of Zn in wheat grain and straw. In black soil there was no difference in the content of Cd in maize grain among treatments, while NPKM or 1.5NPKM treatment resulted in significantly higher Zn contents in maize grain than NPK treatment. Estimation based on the data showed that the maximum bearing year for Cu, Zn and Cd was 67, 118 and 9 years in black soil, 1042, 2043 and 631 years in fluvo-aquic soil, 10, 46 and 0.5 years in red soil, respectively. Under current fertilization and cropping systems, therefore, application of manures would have great environmental risks for both soils and plants. It is necessary to establish a national standard for limiting metal concentrations in manures.
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