文章摘要
刘沙沙,付建平,郭楚玲,党志.微塑料的环境行为及其生态毒性研究进展[J].农业环境科学学报,2019,38(5):957-969.
微塑料的环境行为及其生态毒性研究进展
Research progress on environmental behavior and ecological toxicity of microplastics
投稿时间:2018-08-08  
DOI:10.11654/jaes.2018-1016
中文关键词: 微塑料  环境行为  生态毒性
英文关键词: microplastics  environmental behavior  ecotoxicity effect
基金项目:广东省科技计划项目(2014A020217002);广东省应用型科技研发专项资金项目(2016B020242004)
作者单位
刘沙沙 肇庆学院环境与化学工程学院, 广东 肇庆 526061 
付建平 生态环境部华南环境科学研究所, 广州 510655 
郭楚玲 华南理工大学环境与能源学院, 广州 510006 
党志 华南理工大学环境与能源学院, 广州 510006 
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中文摘要:
      微塑料污染已经成为全球关注的环境问题。本文对不同环境介质中微塑料的来源、迁移、分布特征及其对生物体的毒性效应等方面的研究现状进行了系统的总结和评述。微塑料的来源主要包括直接进入到环境中的初生微塑料和大块塑料破裂、分解形成的次生微塑料,其可在大气、水体(淡水和海洋)和陆地环境之间进行迁移。需建立统一的微塑料样品采集、分离和鉴定方法,并结合准确高效的溯源分析技术,进一步探索其环境行为与归趋。微塑料(含自身的添加剂)被生物摄取后会造成物理损伤、引发生物体的行为、生理学和分子学反应,并可能与其他污染物形成复合污染,产生联合毒性效应。通过同位素示踪与分子生物学新技术的联用,重点研究微塑料的生物累积和在食物链中的传递效应,尤其是对人体健康的潜在威胁,以期为微塑料污染的生态风险评估提供理论依据。
英文摘要:
      The ubiquitous micro-plastics pollution has received global attention in recent years. In this review, the sources, migration, distribution and ecological toxicity challenges of micro-plastics invarious environment matrices are discussed and evaluated.Micro-plastics mainly originate from two sources:(1) a significant direct input of primary micro-plastics and (2) secondary micro-plastics resulting from the fragmentation of larger plastic materials. Microplastics can migrate through atmospheric, freshwater, marine and terrestrial environments. In future, uniform methods for monitoring and investigating micro-plastics should be developed and combined with the source tracking technology, to explore its environmental effects. Microplastics (including additives) can be accidentally ingested by organisms, which may cause physical damage,a wide range of biological and physiological behavior and molecular effects. Micro-plastics can pose a combined toxicity to organism, owing to its role as a vector of chemical pollutants in ecosystems. Future studies on microplastics should focus on investigating their bio-accumulation and trophic transfer up the food chain by combined isotope tracing and new molecular biology techniques, especially for the potential health risk of microplastics for human. This review will provide a rationale for the ecological risk assessment of microplastics.
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