文章摘要
高帅帅,吴民熙,尹红梅,喻孟元,杜东霞,刘标,陈薇,王震,许丽娟,吴迎奔,李咏梅,赵信林.稻田土-水界面降NH3菌株的筛选与鉴定[J].农业环境科学学报,2023,42(10):2274-2280.
稻田土-水界面降NH3菌株的筛选与鉴定
Screening and identification of bacteria that decrease ammonia production at the soil-water interface in a paddy field
投稿时间:2022-12-17  
DOI:10.11654/jaes.2022-1279
中文关键词: 稻田  土-水界面  降NH3菌株    溶杆菌
英文关键词: paddy field  soil-water interface  ammonia production decreasing bacteria  ammonia  Lysobacter
基金项目:湖南省农业农村厅2022年农业科研计划;中国农业科学院科技创新工程项目(CAAS-ASTIP-IBFC);湖南省自然科学基金项目(2021JJ30412);湖南省农业农村厅2021年“一化四体系”农业科研计划项目(湘农20210001);湖南省微生物研究院课题(2021zy09);长沙市科技局自然科学基金项目(kq2202329,kq2208131)
作者单位E-mail
高帅帅 湖南省微生物研究院, 长沙 410009  
吴民熙 湖南省微生物研究院, 长沙 410009  
尹红梅 湖南省微生物研究院, 长沙 410009  
喻孟元 湖南省微生物研究院, 长沙 410009  
杜东霞 湖南省微生物研究院, 长沙 410009  
刘标 湖南省微生物研究院, 长沙 410009  
陈薇 湖南省微生物研究院, 长沙 410009  
王震 湖南省微生物研究院, 长沙 410009  
许丽娟 湖南省微生物研究院, 长沙 410009  
吴迎奔 湖南省微生物研究院, 长沙 410009  
李咏梅 湖南省微生物研究院, 长沙 410009  
赵信林 中国农业科学院麻类研究所, 长沙 410205 xlzhao1990@126.com 
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中文摘要:
      为筛选和鉴定稻田中具有降NH3作用的土著菌株并评估其降NH3效果,探讨其在水稻追施尿素中减少氮肥损失的潜力,本研究首先通过降NH3菌株选择性培养基进行富集,然后利用平板划线法对其进行分离,进而根据细菌的降NH3效果进行复筛,对筛选出的高效降NH3菌株通过16S rDNA测序鉴定菌属,并对目标菌株的氮利用能力、产脲酶性能和溶血性等进行测定。结果表明:通过选择性培养基从稻田土-水界面样品中筛选出3株具有降NH3效果的菌株,分别命名为菌Ⅰ、菌Ⅱ、菌Ⅲ。利用NH3降低率实验进行复筛,其中菌Ⅱ的NH3降低率最高,达到88.60%,根据形态特征和16S rDNA序列分析,鉴定菌Ⅱ为污水溶杆菌(Lysobacter defluvii)。将菌Ⅱ接种到富氨和富硝的培养基后,培养基铵态氮浓度从25.00 mg·L-1降到9.85 mg·L-1,硝态氮浓度从34.00 mg·L-1降到3.85 mg·L-1,降低率分别为60.60%和88.68%,表明菌Ⅱ的氨氮利用和硝态氮利用能力较好。生理生化鉴定结果显示菌Ⅱ不产生脲酶,不会加速尿素产氨,溶血实验显示菌Ⅱ不具有溶血性,对人致病能力差。研究表明,本试验所筛选的稻田土著降NH3菌株在室内条件下具有较好的降NH3效果,对减少稻田追施尿素引起的NH3挥发具有较大潜力,在水稻生产中具有较大的应用前景。
英文摘要:
      This study aimed to screen and identify indigenous bacteria that can decrease ammonia production in a paddy field, evaluate their performance in decreasing ammonia, and explore the potential of the bacteria in reducing nitrogen loss caused by urea topdressing of rice. Bacteria capable of decreasing ammonia production were enriched in a selective medium, separated by the striating plate method, and re-screened according to the bacteria's ammonia reduction rate. Bacteria that were highly effective in reducing ammonia were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. Nitrogen utilization, urease production, and hemolytic properties of these bacteria were determined. Three bacterial strains(bacterium Ⅰ, Ⅱ, and Ⅲ)capable of reducing ammonia production were screened from the surface soil near the soil-water interface of the paddy field using the selective medium. Bacterium Ⅱ had the highest ammonia reduction rate(maximum 88.60%)and was identified as Lysobacter defluvii by morphological characterization and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. After bacterium Ⅱ was inoculated into an ammonia- and nitrate-rich medium, the ammonium nitrogen concentration in the medium decreased from 25.00 mg·L-1 to 9.85 mg·L-1 (60.60% reduction), and the nitrate nitrogen concentration decreased from 34.00 mg·L-1 to 3.85 mg·L-1(88.68% reduction), indicating the efficiency of bacterium Ⅱ in utilizing ammonia and nitrate. Physiological and biochemical identification results showed that bacterium Ⅱ did not produce urease and did not accelerate ammonia production from urea. Additionally, it did not display hemolysis and was poorly pathogenic in humans. The collective results suggested that the indigenous bacterium screened from the rice paddy effectively decreased ammonia production at ambient conditions. Bacterium Ⅱ has great potential to reduce ammonia volatilization caused by urea topdressing in rice fields, and great application prospects in rice production.
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