文章摘要
许世奇,何彦臻,李瑞,户可欣,高铱遥,王旭东.不同改良剂对盐渍土西瓜耐盐性和生长的影响[J].农业环境科学学报,2023,42(10):2301-2312.
不同改良剂对盐渍土西瓜耐盐性和生长的影响
Effects of different amendments on salt tolerance and growth of watermelon in saline soils
投稿时间:2022-12-28  
DOI:10.11654/jaes.2022-1302
中文关键词: 盐渍土  土壤改良剂  盐基离子  西瓜  耐盐性  品质
英文关键词: saline soil  soil amendment  salt-based ion  watermelon  salt tolerance  quality
基金项目:陕西省重点研发计划项目(2022ZDLNY0205);内蒙古鄂尔多斯市重大项目(TG20220520)
作者单位E-mail
许世奇 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院, 农业农村部西北植物营养与农业环境重点实验室, 陕西 杨凌 712100  
何彦臻 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院, 农业农村部西北植物营养与农业环境重点实验室, 陕西 杨凌 712100  
李瑞 神木市农业技术推广中心, 陕西 神木 719300  
户可欣 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院, 农业农村部西北植物营养与农业环境重点实验室, 陕西 杨凌 712100  
高铱遥 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院, 农业农村部西北植物营养与农业环境重点实验室, 陕西 杨凌 712100  
王旭东 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院, 农业农村部西北植物营养与农业环境重点实验室, 陕西 杨凌 712100 wangxudong01@126.com 
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中文摘要:
      为缓解土壤盐渍化对西瓜的胁迫,以“纯品8424”西瓜为试材进行田间试验,设置单施化肥(CF)、CF+胡敏酸钙(CFR1)、CF+水溶性硅肥(CFR2)、CF+鼠李糖脂(CFR3)、CF+胡敏酸钙+水溶性硅肥(CFR4)和CF+胡敏酸钙+水溶性硅肥+鼠李糖脂(CFR5)6个处理,研究了不同改良剂单独或配合施用对土壤pH、盐基离子、西瓜耐盐性及生长的影响,并采用隶属函数法对西瓜耐盐性指标进行综合评价,筛选出适宜盐渍土西瓜生长的最佳改良剂及其组合。结果表明:施用改良剂降低了土壤pH,其中CFR3、CFR4、CFR5的效果显著,较CF分别降低了0.3、0.4、0.4 (P<0.05);改良剂单施或混施增加了土壤Ca2+、K+、Mg2+含量,CFR1、CFR4、CFR5显著降低了土壤Na+含量,单一改良剂处理中以CFR1效果最好,与CF相比,土壤Na+含量降低了6.56%,土壤K+、Ca2+、Mg2+的含量则分别增加了16.13%、31.96%和20.85%,且均达到显著水平(P<0.05);此外,单施或混施改良剂促进了西瓜光合作用与提质增产,其中净光合速率、可溶性固形物含量、产量较CF分别提高了15.22%~43.76%、8.57%~20.45%、14.41%~40.83%,单一改良剂处理中以CFR2的效果最好;施加改良剂显著降低了西瓜植株中的Na+含量,使西瓜耐盐性增强,丙二醛含量、叶片O2-·产生速率较CF分别降低了12.14%~30.97%、18.97%~47.59%,而过氧化物酶活性、脯氨酸含量则分别增加了31.72%~74.73%、26.56%~48.95%。研究表明,胡敏酸钙、水溶性硅肥、鼠李糖脂3种改良剂单独或混合施用不仅能在一定程度上缓解土壤盐分胁迫对西瓜植株的伤害,而且可显著增强西瓜的耐盐性并促进其生长。单一改良剂处理中以胡敏酸钙的效果较好,3种改良剂配合施用较单一改良剂处理能进一步提高西瓜的耐盐性,综合作用效果达到最佳。
英文摘要:
      To alleviate the stress of soil salinization on watermelon,"Pure 8424"watermelon was used as the experimental material in the field trial. Six treatments were designed as follows:chemical fertilizer only(CF), CF + calcium huminate(CFR1), CF + water-soluble silicon fertilizer(CFR2), CF + rhamnolipid(CFR3), CF + calcium huminate + water-soluble silicon fertilizer(CFR4)and CF + calcium huminate + water-soluble silicon fertilizer + rhamnolipid(CFR5). The effects of different amendments alone and in combination on soil pH, salt-based ions, watermelon salt tolerance, and growth were examined. Furthermore, a comprehensive evaluation of watermelon salt tolerance indexes was performed using the membership function method to screen for the best amendments and their combinations suitable for watermelon growth in saline soils. The following results were obtained. Application of the amendments reduced soil pH; the CFR3, CFR4, CFR5 treatments effectively decreased pH by 0.3, 0.4, and 0.4, respectively, compared with the CF treatment(P<0.05). The single or mixed application of amendments increased soil Ca2+, K+, and Mg2+ concentrations. The CFR1, CFR4, and CFR5 treatments significantly reduced soil Na+ concentration. Compared with the CF treatment, the application of CFR1 treatment, which had the most pronounced effect among the single amendment treatments, decreased soil Na+ concentration by 6.56% and increased K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ concentrations by 16.13%, 31.96%, and 20.85%, respectively, in each case reaching a significance level of P<0.05. Furthermore, the single or mixed application of amendments promoted watermelon photosynthesis, quality, and yield. Compared with the CF treatment, the net photosynthetic rate, soluble solids content, and yield increased by 15.22%-43.76%, 8.57%-20.45%, and 14.41%-40.83%, respectively. The CFR2 treatment had the most significant effect among the single amendment treatments. The application of amendments significantly reduced the Na+ concentration in watermelon plants, which enhanced the salt tolerance of watermelons. Compared with the CF treatment, the malondialdehyde content and O2-·production rate in leaves decreased by 12.14%-30.97% and 18.97%-47.59%, respectively, while the peroxidase activity and proline content increased by 31.72%-74.73% and 26.56%-48.95%, respectively. Calcium huminate, water-soluble silicon fertilizer, and rhamnolipid applied alone or in combination not only alleviated the damage caused by soil salinity stress in watermelon plants to a certain extent, but also significantly enhanced the salt tolerance of watermelon and promoted its growth. The calcium huminate treatment had the best effect among the single amendment treatments. Compared with the single amendment treatments, the combined application of three amendments further improved the salt tolerance of watermelon and achieved the best comprehensive effect overall.
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