文章摘要
郑晶,鲍广灵,陶荣浩,吴承龙,马友华,叶文玲.基施与叶面施硒肥对富硒镉污染农田水稻降镉增硒的效应[J].农业环境科学学报,2024,43(5):974-982.
基施与叶面施硒肥对富硒镉污染农田水稻降镉增硒的效应
Effects of basal and foliar selenium fertilizers in reducing cadmium and increasing selenium in selenium-enriched, cadmium-polluted rice fields
投稿时间:2023-08-25  
DOI:10.11654/jaes.2023-0693
中文关键词: 水稻  硒肥    转运和累积
英文关键词: rice  selenium fertilization  cadmium  transport and accumulation
基金项目:安徽省高校自然科学研究项目(KJ2021A0138);安徽省重点研发计划项目(2022m07020004)
作者单位E-mail
郑晶 农田生态保育与污染防控安徽省重点实验室, 安徽农业大学资源与环境学院, 合肥 230031  
鲍广灵 农田生态保育与污染防控安徽省重点实验室, 安徽农业大学资源与环境学院, 合肥 230031  
陶荣浩 农田生态保育与污染防控安徽省重点实验室, 安徽农业大学资源与环境学院, 合肥 230031  
吴承龙 石台富硒农业试验站, 石台县农业农村局, 安徽 池州 245100  
马友华 农田生态保育与污染防控安徽省重点实验室, 安徽农业大学资源与环境学院, 合肥 230031  
叶文玲 农田生态保育与污染防控安徽省重点实验室, 安徽农业大学资源与环境学院, 合肥 230031 wlye@ahau.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      为探讨基施硒肥和叶面施硒肥在轻度镉污染的富硒土壤中对水稻降镉增硒的效果,在田间试验条件下,通过设置基施硒肥、叶面施硒肥和基施硒肥+叶面施硒肥3个处理,以常规施肥作为对照,对成熟期水稻产量、各部位镉和硒含量、富集与转运系数以及土壤中镉的形态进行测定分析。结果表明:叶面施硒肥能显著提高水稻产量。基施硒肥后,土壤pH提高了0.19个单位,提高率为3.01%,同时降低了土壤中镉的弱酸提取态含量,降低率为2.96%,促进了镉从弱酸提取态向可氧化态和残渣态转变,从而降低了土壤中镉的有效性。而叶面施硒肥能显著降低水稻对镉转运特别是秸秆到糙米的转运系数,降低率达15.13%,同时提高水稻对硒的转运特别是根到秸秆的转运系数,提高率达18.69%。不同硒肥处理下,糙米中镉含量为0.159~0.183 mg·kg-1,硒含量为0.216~0.244 mg·kg-1,不同硒肥处理均能使糙米达到降镉增硒的效果,且叶面施硒肥处理相较于基施硒肥处理的效果更好,并在基施硒肥和叶面施硒肥同时使用下的效果最佳,其对糙米中镉含量的降低率达26.39%,硒含量的提升率达41.50%。综上,在轻度镉污染的富硒土壤中,基施硒肥或叶面施硒肥均能有效降低水稻籽粒中镉含量并提高稻米对硒的富集,且基施硒肥+叶面施硒肥处理是降低糙米镉含量与提高糙米硒含量综合效果最好的一种措施。
英文摘要:
      To investigate the effects of basal and foliar selenium fertilizers in reducing cadmium and increasing selenium in rice grown in selenium-enriched soil with mild cadmium contamination, in the present study, the yield of rice in the maturity stage, contents of cadmium and selenium in various tissues, enrichment and transport coefficients, and morphology of cadmium in the soil were determined and analyzed using field experiments. Three treatments(viz., basal selenium fertilizer, foliar selenium fertilizer, and basal selenium fertilizer + foliar selenium fertilizer) were investigated, with conventional fertilizer application used as the control. The results showed that the foliar selenium fertilizer significantly increased rice yield. After application of the basal selenium fertilizer, the soil pH value rose by 0.19 units, an increase of 3.01%. The basal selenium fertilizer also reduced the weak acid extractable state of cadmium in the soil at a rate of 2.96%, promoting the transition of cadmium from the weak acid extractable state to the oxidizable and residual states, thereby reducing the effectiveness of the heavy metal in the soil. The foliar selenium fertilizer significantly reduced the cadmium transfer coefficient of rice, especially from straw to brown rice, with a reduction rate of 15.13%. Additionally, it improved the selenium transfer coefficient of rice, especially from root to straw, with an increase rate of 18.69%. Under the different selenium fertilizer treatments, the cadmium content in brown rice ranged from 0.159 mg·kg-1 to 0.183 mg·kg-1 and the selenium content ranged from 0.216 mg·kg-1 to 0.244 mg·kg-1. The different selenium fertilizer treatments were able to achieve the effects of reducing cadmium and enhancing selenium in brown rice, with the foliar selenium fertilizer producing better effects than the basal selenium fertilizer. The effects were the best when both fertilizers were used simultaneously, whereupon the cadmium content in brown rice was reduced by 26.39% and the selenium content was enhanced by 41.50%. It can be seen that in selenium-rich soil with mild cadmium contamination, either the basal selenium fertilizer or foliar selenium fertilizer can effectively reduce the cadmium content in rice grains and improve their enrichment of selenium, with the simultaneous application of both fertilizers yielding the best results. In conclusion, the simultaneous application of the two selenium fertilizers yields the best combination of reducing the cadmium content and increasing the selenium content in brown rice.
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