文章摘要
金志帅,沈玉君,丁京涛,王惠惠,贾懿曼,周亚文,李丹阳,吴佳璇,郭占斌.不同贮存方式对农村旱厕粪污肥料化利用特性和主要致臭气体排放的影响[J].农业环境科学学报,2024,43(5):1180-1189.
不同贮存方式对农村旱厕粪污肥料化利用特性和主要致臭气体排放的影响
Effects of different storage methods on manure utilization characteristics and main odorous gas emission of rural dry latrine
投稿时间:2023-04-24  
DOI:10.11654/jaes.2023-0320
中文关键词: 旱厕  旱厕粪污  气味控制  农学特性  臭气排放
英文关键词: dry toilet  dry toilet fece  odor control  agronomic characteristic  odor emission
基金项目:青海省重点研发与转化计划项目:高寒地区生态厕所关键技术研究与应用(2022-SF-144-04)
作者单位E-mail
金志帅 黑龙江八一农垦大学工程学院, 黑龙江 大庆 163319
农业农村部规划设计研究院农村能源与环保研究所, 北京 100125 
 
沈玉君 农业农村部规划设计研究院农村能源与环保研究所, 北京 100125  
丁京涛 农业农村部规划设计研究院农村能源与环保研究所, 北京 100125  
王惠惠 农业农村部规划设计研究院农村能源与环保研究所, 北京 100125
农业农村部农村厕所与污水治理技术重点实验室, 北京 100125 
whh9876@163.com 
贾懿曼 农业农村部规划设计研究院农村能源与环保研究所, 北京 100125
农业农村部农村厕所与污水治理技术重点实验室, 北京 100125 
 
周亚文 农业农村部规划设计研究院农村能源与环保研究所, 北京 100125
农业农村部农村厕所与污水治理技术重点实验室, 北京 100125 
 
李丹阳 农业农村部规划设计研究院农村能源与环保研究所, 北京 100125
农业农村部农村厕所与污水治理技术重点实验室, 北京 100125 
 
吴佳璇 黑龙江八一农垦大学工程学院, 黑龙江 大庆 163319
农业农村部规划设计研究院农村能源与环保研究所, 北京 100125 
 
郭占斌 黑龙江八一农垦大学工程学院, 黑龙江 大庆 163319 329984136@qq.com 
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中文摘要:
      为了探究不同贮存方式对农村旱厕粪污肥料化利用特性和主要致臭气体排放的影响,本文针对此类旱厕进行试验,通过研究在自然(敞口)贮存和密闭贮存方式下旱厕粪污理化性质和臭气排放变化,探明改厕对旱厕粪污的农用潜力以及对主要致臭气体排放的影响。结果表明:与自然贮存相比,密闭贮存具有更好的减少氮素损失的效果,总氮损失降低20.24%,氨态氮含量提高22.34%;总碳含量损失降低4.61%;电导率下降0.02;pH值上升0.9。试验周期内,两种贮存方式下粪大肠菌群数从43 MPN·g-1降至3 MPN·g-1以下,种子发芽指数均为0,说明尽管旱厕粪污贮存半年可以达到卫生学的无害化,但作为肥料直接利用仍对作物有毒性作用,建议添加覆盖料或填料提高粪污的腐熟度,从而达到农业利用的要求。半年试验周期内,密闭贮存处理中氨气浓度显著高于自然贮存,最高为279.29 mg·m-3,平均为129.75 mg·m-3,硫化氢浓度平均为10.68 mg·m-3,略高于自然贮存,说明改厕后密闭式的贮粪池内臭气排放主要以氨气为主,缓慢且持续,并且与温度有显著的正相关性,因此卫生旱厕设置排气管是必要的,需要科学设置排气管的高度和内径,将臭气高效排出,避免影响如厕环境。
英文摘要:
      In order to explore the impact of different storage methods on the manure utilization characteristics and main odor-causing gas emissions of rural dry latrines, in this paper, we conducted experiments on this kind of dry sanitary toilet. By researching the dynamic changes in the physicochemical properties and odor emission of human feces in dry toilets under natural(open) storage and closed storage, we explored the effect of renovation of dry sanitary toilets on the agricultural potential and the emission of main odor. The results showed that compared with natural storage, closed storage had better nitrogen loss reduction with a decrease of total nitrogen loss by 20.24% and an increase of ammonia nitrogen content by 22.34%, while the loss of total carbon content and electrical conductivity diminished by 4.61% and 0.02, respectively, as well as a lower pH by 0.9. Throughout the experiment, the number of fecal coliforms decreased from 43 MPN·g-1 to less than 3 MPN·g-1 under the two storage methods, and the seed germination index value was 0, indicating that although the storage of human feces in dry toilet for half a year could achieve hygienically harmless, nevertheless, that still had toxic effects on crops when used as fertilizer directly. It was suggested that the addition of mulching material or filler into human feces was necessary to improve the maturity of manure to meet the agricultural utilization requirements. During the six-month experiment period, the ammonia concentration in closed storage was significantly higher than that in natural storage, with the highest being 279.29 mg·m-3 and the average being 129.75 mg·m-3. The average hydrogen sulfide concentration was 10.68 mg·m-3, which was slightly greater than that in natural storage, illustrating that the odor emitted in a closed septic tank after replacing them with dry sanitary toilets was mainly ammonia, which was slow and continuous, and there was a significant positive correlation with temperature. Therefore, in order to solve the odor problem in dry sanitary toilets, an exhaust pipe must be installed, and its height and inner diameter must be precisely configured to discharge the odor efficiently.
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