文章摘要
许稳,刘学军,孟令敏,郑鲲.不同养殖阶段猪舍氨气和颗粒物污染特征及其动态[J].农业环境科学学报,2018,37(6):1248-1254.
不同养殖阶段猪舍氨气和颗粒物污染特征及其动态
Dynamics and pollution features of ammonia and particulate matter during different pig breeding stages
投稿时间:2017-10-23  
DOI:10.11654/jaes.2017-1440
中文关键词: 空气污染物  环境浓度  污染特征  养殖业  猪舍
英文关键词: air pollutants  ambient concentration  pollution characteristics  breeding industry  pig house
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41425007);国家自然科学基金青年科学基金项目(41705130);国家科技支撑计划项目(2017YFC0210106)
作者单位E-mail
许稳 中国农业大学资源与环境学院, 北京 100193  
刘学军 中国农业大学资源与环境学院, 北京 100193 liu310@cau.edu.cn 
孟令敏 中国农业大学资源与环境学院, 北京 100193  
郑鲲 中国农业大学资源与环境学院, 北京 100193  
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中文摘要:
      为了揭示不同养殖阶段猪舍氨气和颗粒物污染特征和时间(日和季节)变化规律,对北京郊区一集约化猪场内妊娠舍、哺乳舍、保育舍和育肥舍等4种不同养殖阶段猪舍内氨气(NH3)和颗粒物[TSP(总悬浮颗粒物,空气动力学当量直径d ≤ 100 μm)、PM10、PM2.5]的浓度进行了连续测定。离线和实时的NH3采集分别采用ALPHA被动采样器和气体检测管;颗粒物采集采用中流量颗粒物采样器。结果表明,育肥舍、妊娠舍、哺乳舍和保育舍的月均NH3浓度平均分别为(3.26±1.49)、(3.48±2.20)、(2.95±1.13) mg·m-3和(2.94±1.48) mg·m-3,并呈现冬季 > 秋季 > 夏季的季节变化趋势;育肥舍、妊娠舍和保育舍实时NH3浓度的波动范围分别为3.43~6.73、0.82~4.51 mg·m-3和0.99~3.14 mg·m-3,其在一定程度上受舍内清粪影响。舍内TSP、PM10和PM2.5日均浓度平均值在保育舍分别为(0.99±0.32)、(0.18±0.04) mg·m-3和(0.07±0.03) mg·m-3,而育肥舍则分别为(2.39±0.39)、(0.88±0.17) mg·m-3和(0.40±0.17) mg·m-3。进一步分析发现,猪舍内颗粒物以10~100 μm为主,在保育舍和育肥舍中分别占TSP质量浓度的82%和63%。本研究结果表明当前舍内NH3和颗粒物污染具有潜在健康风险,需采取相关的舍内空气污染减缓措施加以控制。
英文摘要:
      To reveal the pollution characteristics and temporal(i.e., diurnal and seasonal) variations of ammonia and particulate matter in different breeding stages of pigs, the indoor concentrations of NH3 and particulate matter[PM:including total suspended particulate matter(TSP, aerodynamic diameter ≤ 100 μm), PM10, and PM2.5] for four types of pig houses(i.e., fattening, gestation, farrowing, and weaning pig houses) at an intensive farm in the suburbs of Beijing were investigated in this study. Gaseous NH3 was sampled using passive samplers and detector tubes, and aerial PM was collected using middle-flow particle samplers. Monthly mean NH3 concentrations in the fattening, gestation, fallowing, and weaning pig houses averaged(3.26±1.49), (3.48±2.20), (2.95±1.13), and(2.94±1.48) mg·m-3, respectively, and exhibited pronounced seasonal variations, ranking in the order:winter > autumn > summer. Real-time NH3 concentrations in the fattening, weaning, and gestation pig houses were in the ranges of 3.43~7.99, 0.82~4.51, and 0.99~3.14 mg·m-3, respectively, which to some extent is affected by manure removal. Daily mean concentrations of TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 averaged(0.99±0.32), (0.18±0.04), and(0.07±0.03) mg·m-3 in the weaning pig houses, respectively, whereas they amounted to(2.39±0.39), (0.88±0.17), and(0.40±0.17) mg·m-3 in the fattening pig houses. Further analysis of the concentrations showed that PM with a diameter of 10~100 μm dominated the indoor particle pollution, accounting for 82% and 63% of TSP mass concentrations in the weaning and fattening pig houses, respectively. Our results suggest that the detected indoor NH3 and PM levels could pose potential health risks to pigs and humans and that relevant air pollution control strategies should be implemented to improve indoor air quality of intensive pig farms in the future.
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