文章摘要
熊学振,杨春,于琳.中国畜牧业环境约束的量化分析——基于土地环境承载力和生态足迹[J].农业环境科学学报,2021,40(8):1799-1807.
中国畜牧业环境约束的量化分析——基于土地环境承载力和生态足迹
Quantitative analysis of environmental constraints in China's animal husbandry industry based on land environmental carrying capacity and ecological footprint
投稿时间:2021-02-01  
DOI:10.11654/jaes.2021-0136
中文关键词: 畜牧业  环境约束  土地承载力  生态足迹  量化分析
英文关键词: animal husbandry  environmental constraints  land carrying capacity  ecological footprint  quantitative analysis
基金项目:中国农业科学院科技创新工程项目(ASTIP-IAED-2021-01);国家自然科学基金项目(71503251);国家牧草产业技术体系专项资金项目(CARS-34-22)
作者单位E-mail
熊学振 中国农业科学院农业经济与发展研究所, 北京 100081  
杨春 中国农业科学院农业经济与发展研究所, 北京 100081 yangchun@caas.cn 
于琳 中国农业科学院农业经济与发展研究所, 北京 100081  
摘要点击次数: 1975
全文下载次数: 1988
中文摘要:
      聚焦高质量发展背景下畜牧业环境约束主题,从土地环境承载力和生态环境承载力两个方面量化分析畜牧业环境约束水平,明确中国畜牧业环境约束的时空分异特征以及养殖、需求规模分别同土地、生态环境的匹配程度。采用养分平衡法和三维生态足迹模型分别测算了畜牧业土地环境承载力和生态环境承载力,并进行时空特征分析。结果显示:2001—2018年,土地环境可载猪当量增长45.21%,土地环境承载力指数下降36.07%,畜牧业土地环境承载状况明显好转;人均畜牧业生态足迹和生态承载力分别提升22.81%和42.96%,生态承载强度呈缓和趋势,但截至2018年,畜牧业生态足迹仍高达承载力的2.46倍,生态赤字为2.08×108 hm2;综合两维度来看,中国畜牧业仍面临严峻的生态环境压力,区域间环境约束不平衡现象显著,土地环境约束“南重北轻”、生态环境约束“东重西轻”,东南沿海地区土地、生态环境承载压力最重。研究表明,中国畜牧业环境约束严峻,但正在趋向缓和状态,特别是土地环境约束明显好转,但生态环境约束形势依然不容乐观,生态环境约束总体要重于土地环境约束且长期未得到足够重视。
英文摘要:
      The purpose of this study is to determine the environmental constraints of animal husbandry in the context of high-quality development and to quantitatively analyze these constraints based on two aspects:land environmental carrying capacity and ecological environmental carrying capacity, and further clarify the environmental constraints in China's animal husbandry industry over time and space using differentiation characteristics and the matching degree of scale of breeding and demand with the land and ecological environment. This study used the nutrient balance method and the three-dimensional ecological footprint model to calculate the land environmental carrying capacity and the ecological environmental carrying capacity of the animal husbandry industry, and analyzed the temporal and spatial characteristics, respectively. The results showed that from 2001 to 2018, the land environmental carrying capacity of pigs increased by 45.21%, the land environmental carrying capacity index decreased by 36.07%, and the land environmental carrying capacity for the animal husbandry industry improved significantly. The per capita ecological footprint of animal husbandry industry and the ecological carrying capacity increased by 22.81% and 42.96% respectively, and the ecological carrying capacity showed a trend of relaxation. However, as of 2018, the ecological footprint was still as high as 2.46 times the carrying capacity, and the ecological deficit was 2.08×108 hm2. From a comprehensive two-dimensional perspective, China's animal husbandry industry was still exerting severe pressure on the ecological environment, and the imbalance of environmental constraints between regions was highly significant. Land environmental constraints were low for southern and northern areas, ecological environment constraints were low for eastern and western areas, and the ecological environment exerted the highest pressure in the southeast coastal areas. The results show that the environmental constraints associated with the animal husbandry industry in China are severe but easing, the land environmental constraints are notably improved, but the ecological environmental constraints are still poor and these are generally more important than the land environmental constraints and have been neglected for a long time.
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