文章摘要
耿芳,刘连华,欧阳威,朱建强.长江流域典型单季稻田间水文及氮素流失特征[J].农业环境科学学报,2023,42(1):132-141.
长江流域典型单季稻田间水文及氮素流失特征
Hydrology and nitrogen loss characteristics of a typical rice paddy field in the Yangtze River basin
投稿时间:2022-03-25  
DOI:10.11654/jaes.2022-0287
中文关键词: 稻田  面源污染  氮素流失  水文特征
英文关键词: paddy field  non-point source pollution  nitrogen loss  hydrologic characteristics
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(U21A2039,42107394);中国博士后科学基金项目(2020M680432)
作者单位E-mail
耿芳 北京师范大学环境学院, 环境模拟与污染控制国家重点联合实验室, 北京 100875  
刘连华 北京师范大学环境学院, 环境模拟与污染控制国家重点联合实验室, 北京 100875 liulianhua@bnu.edu.cn 
欧阳威 北京师范大学环境学院, 环境模拟与污染控制国家重点联合实验室, 北京 100875
北京师范大学环境与生态前沿交叉研究院, 广东 珠海 519087 
 
朱建强 长江大学农学院, 湖北 荆州 434025  
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中文摘要:
      为探究稻田水文和氮素流失特征以及二者之间的关系,以我国三大水稻主产区之一的长江流域稻作区典型单季稻田为对象,开展田间尺度多因子水分与氮素流失原位动态监测。结果表明:田面水位高度主要受降雨和灌溉的影响,田间水肥管理是不同深度土壤含水量、田面水和土壤水中氮素浓度动态变化的主要影响因素。地表径流流失是平水年稻田氮素流失的主要途径,整个生育期内流失量为8.70 kg·hm-2;渗漏流失是枯水年稻田氮素流失的主要途径,整个生育期内流失量为4.86 kg·hm-2。返青期是氮素渗漏流失的关键生育期,平水年和枯水年该时期渗漏流失量分别为1.73 kg·hm-2和2.14 kg·hm-2;分蘖期和拔节孕穗期是氮素地表径流流失的关键生育期,平水年和枯水年这两个时期地表径流流失量分别为7.10 kg·hm-2和1.26 kg·hm-2。稻田水文与氮素流失之间密切相关,田面水位动态变化可以影响稻田渗漏水量和地表径流水量,进而影响稻田氮素流失量。研究表明,应该避免水稻生育前期(返青期、分蘖期和拔节孕穗期),特别是施肥后一周内田面水的外排;合理提高稻田排水水位,增加稻田水容量,从而减少氮素流失。
英文摘要:
      To investigate the hydrology and nitrogen loss characteristics of paddy fields and the relationship between them, in situ monitoring of field-scale multifactor water and nitrogen loss dynamics was carried out in a typical single rice paddy field in the Yangtze River basin, one of the three major rice planting areas in China. Results showed that field ponding water depth was mainly influenced by rainfall and irrigation. Water and fertilizer management were the main influencing factors for the dynamic changes of soil water content at different depths and nitrogen concentrations in field ponding water and soil water. Surface runoff loss was the main pathway of nitrogen loss from paddy fields in a normal year, with a loss of 8.70 kg·hm-2 in the rice growing season. Leaching loss was the main pathway of nitrogen loss from paddy fields in a dry year, with a loss of 4.86 kg·hm-2 in the rice growing season. The recovering stage was the critical risk stage for nitrogen leaching loss, with a loss of 1.73 kg·hm-2 and 2.14 kg·hm-2 in normal and dry years, respectively; the tillering and jointing- booting stages were the most critical risk stages for nitrogen surface runoff loss, with a loss of 7.10 kg·hm-2 and 1.26 kg·hm-2, respectively. There was a close correlation between paddy field hydrology and nitrogen loss. Changes in the dynamics of field ponding water level can affect the leaching and surface runoff water from paddy fields, which in turn affects nitrogen loss from paddy fields. In conclusion, field drainage in the early rice growing stages(recovering, tillering, and jointing-booting stages), especially within one week after fertilization, should be avoided. The paddy field drainage level should be raised to increase the field water capacity, thereby reducing nitrogen loss.
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