文章摘要
杜胜男,张瀚麟,赵汉胤,陈以芹,李娟英.小麦秸秆生物炭添加对养殖池塘底泥重金属的原位修复[J].农业环境科学学报,2023,42(1):188-196.
小麦秸秆生物炭添加对养殖池塘底泥重金属的原位修复
In situ remediation of heavy metals in aquaculture pond sediment by wheat straw biochar addition
投稿时间:2022-04-20  
DOI:10.11654/jaes.2022-0392
中文关键词: 小麦秸秆生物炭  养殖底泥  重金属  原位修复
英文关键词: wheat straw biochar  aquaculture sediment  heavy metal  in situ remediation
基金项目:上海市农业农村委员会科技兴农项目(No. (2020), 3-2);上海市科委科技基金项目(21002410500)
作者单位E-mail
杜胜男 上海海洋大学海洋生态与环境学院, 上海 201306  
张瀚麟 上海海洋大学海洋生态与环境学院, 上海 201306  
赵汉胤 上海海洋大学海洋生态与环境学院, 上海 201306  
陈以芹 上海海洋大学海洋生态与环境学院, 上海 201306  
李娟英 上海海洋大学海洋生态与环境学院, 上海 201306 jyli@shou.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      养殖底泥作为池塘环境的载体之一,其污染情况直接影响水产品的质量。为保证水产品质量和人体健康,本研究用小麦秸秆生物炭作为修复剂原位添加到受重金属污染的底泥中,辅以薄膜梯度扩散装置(DGT),评估小麦秸秆生物炭添加后在水产品养殖的各个时期,生物体内重金属累积浓度、危险系数、生物有效性和沉积物-水界面扩散通量的变化。结果表明,小麦秸秆生物炭的添加使水产品体内累积的重金属下降15%~55%,4种重金属累积浓度总体下降率顺序为Cd>Pb>Cr>Cu,底栖生物的下降率均高于鱼类,Pb和 Cd在生物幼苗期达到 39%的最大下降率,Cu和 Cr的下降率最大值发生在生长期,其下降率分别为 40%和 24%。重金属目标危险系数(THQ)下降率范围在15%~55%,与重金属浓度累积下降率相近。在小麦秸秆生物炭原位修复期间,孔隙水中 4 种重金属有效态浓度在幼苗期下降最快。修复完成时,Cu、Pb、Cd、Cr 4 种重金属有效态浓度分别下降了 21%、48%、71%、19%。对修复期间沉积物-水界面处各重金属表观扩散通量进行计算的结果表明,底泥中小麦秸秆生物炭的添加加强了底泥作为汇的功能,有助于水体中的重金属向养殖底泥中沉积并且有利于降低水生生物体内的重金属含量。
英文摘要:
      The pollution of farming substrates, as the carrier of the pond environment, directly affects the quality of aquatic products. Thus, the development of approaches to ensure the quality and safety of aquatic products and human health is of great importance. In this study, wheat straw biochar was applied as a remediation agent to heavy metal-contaminated farming substrates in situ. Samples were then collected using a thin-film gradient diffusion device over various periods of aquaculture after biochar addition, and changes in the accumulated heavy-metal concentration, risk factor, bioavailability, and diffusion flux at the sediment-water interface were evaluated. The addition of wheat straw biochar decreased the accumulation of the heavy metals Cr, Cu, Pb, and Cd in aquatic products by 15%-55%, and the overall decrease in the accumulated concentration of these metals showed the order of Cd>Pb>Cr>Cu. The decrease rates of these metals in benthic organisms were higher than those in fishes. The maximum decrease rates of Pb and Cd reached 39% in the seedling stage, whereas the maximum decrease rates of Cu(40%)and Cr(24%)occurred in the growth stage. The decrease rates of the target hazard factors of the heavy metals also ranged from 15% to 55%, similar to the decrease rates of their accumulated concentration. During in situ wheat straw biochar remediation, the concentrations of the four heavy metals in the pore water decreased most rapidly during the seedling stage. After complete remediation, the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Cr decreased by 21%, 48%, 71%, and 19%, respectively. Calculations of the apparent diffusion flux of each heavy metal at the sediment-water interface during the restoration period showed that the addition of biochar to the substrate not only enhanced the function of the substrate as a sink and promoted the deposition of heavy metals from the water column into the aquaculture sediment, but also reduced the heavy-metal content of aquatic organisms.
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