文章摘要
丁周宇,张娜,舒小伟,杨英,王树深,伏桐,赵士茹,王子涵,周娟,姚友礼,季美娣,董桂春.栽培措施对水稻氮素吸收利用及稻田尾水氮磷含量的影响[J].农业环境科学学报,2023,42(9):2004-2015.
栽培措施对水稻氮素吸收利用及稻田尾水氮磷含量的影响
Effects of cultivation practices on nitrogen absorption and utilization of rice and nitrogen and phosphorus contents of paddy tailwater
投稿时间:2022-11-02  修订日期:2023-01-16
DOI:10.11654/jaes.2022-1099
中文关键词: 耕作方式  秸秆还田  肥料品种  氮素吸收利用  稻田尾水氮磷含量
英文关键词: tillage method  straw returning  fertilizer type  nitrogen absorption and utilization  nitrogen and phosphorus content of paddy tailwater
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31571608);江苏省农业重大技术协同推广计划项目(2023-ZYXT-03-2);常州市现代农业产业技术体系建设项目(2021007);常州市2022年农业科技创新和示范推广项目;江苏现代农业产业技术体系建设项目(JATS[2021]091)
作者单位E-mail
丁周宇 扬州大学江苏省作物遗传生理重点实验室培育点/江苏省粮食作物现代产业技术协同创新中心/教育部植物功能基因组重点实验室, 江苏 扬州 225009  
张娜 常州市农业综合技术推广中心, 江苏 常州 213001  
舒小伟 扬州大学江苏省作物遗传生理重点实验室培育点/江苏省粮食作物现代产业技术协同创新中心/教育部植物功能基因组重点实验室, 江苏 扬州 225009  
杨英 扬州大学江苏省作物遗传生理重点实验室培育点/江苏省粮食作物现代产业技术协同创新中心/教育部植物功能基因组重点实验室, 江苏 扬州 225009  
王树深 扬州大学江苏省作物遗传生理重点实验室培育点/江苏省粮食作物现代产业技术协同创新中心/教育部植物功能基因组重点实验室, 江苏 扬州 225009  
伏桐 扬州大学江苏省作物遗传生理重点实验室培育点/江苏省粮食作物现代产业技术协同创新中心/教育部植物功能基因组重点实验室, 江苏 扬州 225009  
赵士茹 扬州大学江苏省作物遗传生理重点实验室培育点/江苏省粮食作物现代产业技术协同创新中心/教育部植物功能基因组重点实验室, 江苏 扬州 225009  
王子涵 扬州大学江苏省作物遗传生理重点实验室培育点/江苏省粮食作物现代产业技术协同创新中心/教育部植物功能基因组重点实验室, 江苏 扬州 225009  
周娟 扬州大学江苏省作物遗传生理重点实验室培育点/江苏省粮食作物现代产业技术协同创新中心/教育部植物功能基因组重点实验室, 江苏 扬州 225009  
姚友礼 扬州大学江苏省作物遗传生理重点实验室培育点/江苏省粮食作物现代产业技术协同创新中心/教育部植物功能基因组重点实验室, 江苏 扬州 225009  
季美娣 常州市农业综合技术推广中心, 江苏 常州 213001 cszjmd2008@sina.com 
董桂春 扬州大学江苏省作物遗传生理重点实验室培育点/江苏省粮食作物现代产业技术协同创新中心/教育部植物功能基因组重点实验室, 江苏 扬州 225009 gcdong@yzu.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      为探讨在不同耕作模式下秸秆还田和肥料品种对水稻产量形成、氮素吸收利用、土壤养分含量及稻田尾水氮磷含量的影响,以南粳9108和金武软玉为供试材料,设计秸秆还田与肥料品种、秸秆还田与耕作方式、耕作方式与肥料品种3个互作试验。结果表明:与秸秆不还田处理相比,秸秆还田处理的水稻产量平均高5.57%,成穗率平均高6.11%,吸氮量、氮素籽粒生产效率、氮素收获指数、氮肥偏生产力和氮肥利用率分别高3.30%、2.16%、0.70%、5.46%和4.96%,土壤中全氮和速效氮含量分蘖期较低,分蘖期后较高,全生育期尾水中总氮、总磷含量分别平均提高4.83%、39.28%。与浅旋处理相比,深耕处理的水稻产量平均高9.75%,成穗率平均低0.62%,吸氮量、氮素籽粒生产效率、氮肥偏生产力和氮肥利用率分别高3.27%、6.33%、9.76%和1.52%,氮素收获指数低1.42%,土壤全氮和速效氮含量分别低0.27%和2.83%,全生育期尾水中总氮、总磷含量分别平均降低4.23%、12.71%。与速效肥处理相比,缓释肥处理的水稻产量平均低12.01%,成穗率平均低2.95%,氮素籽粒生产效率、氮素收获指数、氮肥偏生产力分别低13.89%、4.48%%、12.05%,吸氮量和氮肥利用率分别高1.92%和3.85%,土壤全氮含量高1.50%,土壤速效氮含量低2.83%,全生育期尾水中总氮、总磷含量分别平均降低6.31%、1.12%。还田深耕速效肥处理产量最高,氮肥利用率略低,尾水氮、磷含量较高;还田深耕缓释肥处理的产量略低,尾水氮磷含量最低,氮肥利用率最高。研究表明,采用秸秆还田+深耕+速效肥的方式有利于水稻产量的提高,采用秸秆不还田+深耕+缓释肥的方式可以提高氮肥利用率,减少稻田对环境中氮、磷的排放。
英文摘要:
      In order to quantify the effects of cultivation measures on rice yield formation, nitrogen absorption and utilization of rice, soil nutrient content, and nitrogen and phosphorus contents of paddy tailwater, three interaction experiments of straw returning by fertilizer varieties, straw returning by tillage methods, and tillage methods by fertilizer types were conducted, based on NJ9108 and Jinwuruanyu as rice varieties. Results showed that:Compared with that observed in the no-straw-returning treatment, the average rice yield of strawreturning treatment was 5.57% higher and the average panicle rate was 6.11% higher; the nitrogen absorption(NA), nitrogen use efficiency for grain yield(NUEg), nitrogen harvest index(NHI), nitrogen partial factor productivity(PFPN), and nitrogen fertilizer recovery(FRN) were 3.30%, 2.16%, 0.70%, 5.46%, and 4.96% higher, respectively; and the total soil nitrogen(TN)and available nitrogen(AN)contents were lower at the tillering stage and higher after the tillering stage; and the average contents of TN and TP in paddy tailwater were 4.83% and 39.28% higher druing the whole growth period, respectively. Compared with that observed in the shallow spin treatment, the average rice yield of the deep plowing treatment was 9.75% higher and the average panicle rate was 0.62% lower; the NA, NUEg, PFPN, and FRN were 3.27%, 6.33%, 9.76%, and 1.52% higher, respectively; NHI was 1.42% lower; the contents of soil TN and AN were 0.27% and 2.83% lower, respectively; and the average contents of TN and TP in paddy tailwater were 4.23% and 12.71% lower during the whole growth period, respectively. Compared with that observed in the fast-acting fertilizer treatment, the average rice yield of the slow-release fertilizer treatment was 12.01% lower and the average panicle rate was 2.95% lower; the NUEg, NHI, and PFPN were 13.89%, 4.48%, and 12.05% lower, respectively, whereas the NA and FRN were 1.92% and 3.85% higher, respectively; the content of soil TN was 1.50% higher, and the content of soil AN was 2.83% lower; and the average contents of TN and TP in paddy tailwater were 6.31% and 1.12% lower during the whole growth period, respectively. The highest yield value, a slightly higher FRN value, and higher TN and TP contents of paddy tailwater occurred with the interaction among straw returning, deep plowing, and fast-acting fertilizer, whereas a slightly lower yield, the lowest TN and TP contents of paddy tailwater, and the highest FRN value occurred with the interaction among straw returning, deep plowing, and slowacting fertilizer. The three-way interaction among straw returning, deep plowing, and fast-acting fertilizer was most beneficial for the improvement of rice yield, whereas that among no straw returning, deep plowing, and slow-acting fertilizer improved the nitrogen fertilizer recovery and reduced the nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from the paddy field into the atmosphere.
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