文章摘要
杨晓荣,黄永春,刘仲齐,王常荣,张长波.叶面喷施二巯基丁二酸对晚稻籽粒镉及矿质元素含量的影响[J].农业环境科学学报,2019,38(8):1802-1808.
叶面喷施二巯基丁二酸对晚稻籽粒镉及矿质元素含量的影响
Foliar application of DMSA: Effects on Cd and other mineral elements in rice grains
投稿时间:2019-05-28  
DOI:10.11654/jaes.2019-0588
中文关键词: 水稻    2,3-二巯基丁二酸  叶面喷施
英文关键词: rice  cadmium  2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid  foliar application
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0801100)
作者单位E-mail
杨晓荣 农业农村部环境保护科研监测所, 天津 300191  
黄永春 农业农村部环境保护科研监测所, 天津 300191 nylab@126.com 
刘仲齐 农业农村部环境保护科研监测所, 天津 300191  
王常荣 农业农村部环境保护科研监测所, 天津 300191  
张长波 农业农村部环境保护科研监测所, 天津 300191  
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中文摘要:
      通过考察在水稻开花期叶面喷施一次重金属螯合剂2,3-二巯基丁二酸(DMSA)调控Cd经水稻韧皮部向籽粒中转运,评估将DMSA作为降Cd叶面调理剂的可行性。田间试验过程中,以DMSA为研究对象,采用小区试验法研究了DMSA对Cd及部分矿质元素在水稻不同器官中分布的影响,探讨了DMSA阻控Cd向水稻籽粒迁移转运的机制。结果表明:在晚稻开花期叶面喷施一次DMSA,可使晚稻籽粒中Cd含量降低15.84%~46.09%,穗轴中Cd含量降低10.03%~41.41%,穗颈中Cd含量降低9.13%~28.46%,顶端第一节中Cd含量降低18.30%~38.32%,对其他器官中Cd含量无显著影响。水稻籽粒Cd含量与DMSA喷施浓度在一定范围内呈现出明显的剂量效应关系,但是当喷施浓度超过4 mmol·L-1时籽粒中Cd含量则不再持续降低。喷施DMSA降低了籽粒中Mn含量,但是对其他矿质元素如K、Mg、Ca、Fe、Zn的含量则无显著影响。喷施DMSA显著降低了水稻成熟期旗叶Cd向顶端第一节的转移系数,同时Cd由穗颈向穗轴中的转移系数也表现出降低趋势。据以上结果推测,在水稻开花期叶面喷施DMSA,主要是通过与水稻叶片等组织中的Cd2+形成螯合物来降低Cd向籽粒中的转运。喷施DMSA同时降低晚稻籽粒中Mn含量,是否表明影响了Cd、Mn公用转运基因Nramp5的表达仍有待进一步研究。
英文摘要:
      Cd pollution in farmland soils has become one of the most important agricultural environmental problems in China. In this study, the feasibility of 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) as a foliar modulator for the reduction of rice grain Cd content was evaluated. After spraying DMSA on rice leaves during flowering, we monitored the transport of Cd from phloem to grain. Moreover, we analyzed the effects of DMSA on the distribution of Cd and some other mineral elements in different parts of the rice, and discussed the mechanism through which DMSA could prevent the migration of Cd to the rice grains. The results showed that the application of DMSA on the leaf surface of late rice reduced the rice grain Cd content by 15.84%~46.09%; additionally, the Cd content in the rachis, the first internode, and the first node decreased by 10.03%~41.41%, 9.13%~28.46%, and 18.30%~38.32%, respectively. No significant difference in Cd content was noted in the other organs of the plant. The rice grain Cd content and the concentration of sprayed DMSA showed an obvious dose-effect relationship within a certain range; however, once the spraying concentration exceeded 4 mmol·L-1, the rice grain Cd content did not decrease continuously anymore. The results of this study can be used to support agricultural production. We further noticed that the foliar application of DMSA reduced the rice grain Mn content, but did not have significant effects on the content of other mineral elements (e.g. K, Mg, Ca, Fe, and Zn). After the application of DMSA, the transfer coefficient of Cd from the flag leaf to the first node of the plant was significantly reduced. The transfer coefficient of Cd from the first internode of the plants to the grains also showed a decreasing trend, but the reduction was not significant. According to the above results, the application of DMSA on rice leaves during flowering can reduce the transport of Cd to the grains, mainly through the chelation of Cd2+ in the leaves and other tissues of the plant. The Mn content reduction in late rice grains, following the application of DMSA, might indicate that this acid affected the expression of gene Nramp5 (a transporter of Cd and Mn); nevertheless, this hypothesis needs to be confirmed through further studies. Here, we provide new theoretical bases for the development of a new type of modulator that can reduce rice grain Cd content. The application of this modulator might ensure the quality and safety of rice in Cd-polluted farmland soils.
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